(This image is from the Tughra of Sultan Sulaiman the Magnificent from 16th century Istanbul, Turkey. Image source: Metropolitan Museum of Art via ARTstor)
Map of the Ottoman Empire
André Koehne, CC BY-SA 3.0 <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/>, via Wikimedia Commons
Lasting from the 13th century to the early 20th, the Ottoman empire was a significant military and political force. Famous for its patronage of art and architecture, and the millet system for organizing non-Muslim minority life, the military prowess of the janissaries, the breadth and efficiency of the Ottoman bureaucracy at its peak, is unparalleled.