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An Introduction to Islam

This guide was created to offer some introductory materials about the Islam faith, Muslims, Islamic society, etc.

Falsafa and Kalam

Just as falsafa, philosophy, is a secular exploration of the secrets of the universe, kalam is the science of religious debate/argument through which religous truths are reached.

A definition of falsafa

A definition of kalam

 

Further Reading on the links between falsafa and kalam:

The Interactive Relationship of Philosophy and Theology (Oxford Islamic Studies)

[Islamic] Philosophy and theology (Oxford Islamic Studies)


Notable Persons in Philosophy and Theology

Below, you'll find an abbreviated list of notable Islamic philosophers and theologians.

Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 370/980-428/1037)

Ibn Rushd (Averroes, 520/1126-595/1198)

al-Ghazali (450/1058-505/1111)

 

Science in the Middle Ages

Scientific, medical, theological and philosophical exploration were intimately linked practices in the Middle Ages. Translation made ancient texts from the antiquities newly available, and sparked tremendous intellectual and artistic endeavors. Cities like Baghdad and Cordoba were world famous for their sophistication.

“Illustrated manuscript, folio Materia Medica of Dioscorides” 1224, Attributed to: Iraq, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Rogers Fund, 1913; Courtesy of ARTStor.

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